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New York: Rizzoli Abstract This paper sets out to identify the attributes that bear the values of the modern building and to define concepts that enable a more uniform understanding to be reached of the stages of evaluating and making judgments on attributes.
But what are the attributes of a building? And more specifically, of a building of modern architecture?
Hendrik Petrus Berlage
The list of attributes provided by the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention2 is the starting point for identifying the attributes of modern architecture. The first Operational Guidelines dates from , but it is only in the and editions that attributes are mentioned. Paragraph 82 lays down that cultural assets "satisfy the conditions of authenticity if their values are expressed truthfully and credibly by means of attributes.
It is a procedure that targets the stages of evaluating and making judgments on attributes. Discussion forums of experts found that there is agreement on the attributes identified, but the understanding of the concept of each attribute is still some distance from being held in common. Among the attributes present in an object, some are more important and directly related to the significance of the property and these are the attributes that deserve greatest attention when making judgments on conservation actions.
The concept of significance is associated with the set of cultural values attributed by a community to an asset3. Significance may increase or decrease over time, or be redefined, and new values can be created4. There is an understanding that cultural significance is the set of values resulting from making judgment and undertaking the social validation of past and present meanings of an object.
This judgment is made in the present and uses the meanings and values of the past as references, supported by instruments of memory recognized by society5. The ability of a property to express its significance depends on the integrity and authenticity of its attributes. Integrity is an appreciation of the completeness and intact character of the heritage asset and its attributes6. Evaluating the conditions of integrity of an asset means to evaluate the extent to which it possesses all the elements necessary to express its Outstanding Universal Value, and is of a sufficient dimension to express its significance.
It is the level of completeness expressed by the attributes of modern architecture. It is the sense of the probability of the physical material and non-material attributes expressing the values of the heritage site in a true or false manner8.
This paper interprets this definition as follows: The authenticity of an attribute is the state in which the attribute is found and represents its ability to express the value of the heritage asset in a true or false way.
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The modern architecture listed by UNESCO a are a type of intentional case and represents the totality of the assets, it is restricted by the number of examples which is still low see Table 1. The investigation focused on the Statements of Significance, and the descriptions of the assets presented by the States responsible for nominating each property to the list. The selection criteria follows the rule of exhaustivity10 since it is possible to analyze all the documents available in the site.
Significant buildings b are characterized by their historical importance and are cases that are often cited in the literature.
Table 1: The method used to analyze the texts was that of content analysis The interest is not in the description of the content, but rather on what the messages can teach us after being studied. On this basis, the central objective was defined: This objective defined the position from which to explore the texts: The attitude is that of being investigative rather than being induced to fit in all the features found in the attributes as defined by UNESCO.
The procedure was as follows: It was found that some of these concepts were important and could not be grouped with those that already exist. The construction of the conceptualization of each attribute occurred in reverse. The texts from which they were extracted were related to each of these in order to identify how they are currently understood. In addition to the bibliographic references already cited, in parallel to these, 30 cases of buildings that have already undergone conservation actions were the object of analysis.
The objective was to identify the actions performed when conserving a modern building and how they interfered with the attributes. These considerations are presented after conceptualizing what an attribute is, in the next section.
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This resulted in putting forward considerations that may assist making judgment on the action of conserving the integrity and authenticity of the attributes of an asset. Of these, the last two are not included among the attributes given in the Operational Guidelines.
Form and design This covers the characteristics of the design, plasticity, aesthetics, design, but not the originality of the material.
In this attribute, the external aspect of the volumetry, structure and surfaces that make up the envelope walls, roofing, window-frames, hollow elements and those that give solar protection compared to what originally existed in the building. This is an attribute of great importance in modern architecture.
It is evident in all buildings from the World Heritage List, for this represents their aesthetic novelty in architecture. The complete or partial reconstruction of a building, following the guidelines of the original design, does not always imply loss of this attribute.
This is the case of protected buildings that have had part of their edifications damaged during armed conflicts. This is not about a simple copy. It is about the rescue of historical or architectonic meaning. Additional elements, placed arbitrarily, which altered the original composition of the design contribute negatively. The addition of new elements, whether for technical or functional reasons, is understood as a change and reduction of the attribute of 'form and design'.
Materials and substance The attribute related to the original material. There is no loss of this attribute when the original materials have been maintained. The statements of significance of the buildings on the World Heritage List mention the permanence of the original materials. Altering the material is justified in cases where the building has undergone modifications and there is the desire to restore the original form and design. There are examples in which significance is strongly linked to the originality of the material.
Exposed concrete structures may be what define the internal space and integrating parts of the composition of the design. The Centennial Hall, , in Wroclaw, Poland, by Max Berg, is noted for pioneering the use of reinforced concrete forms with curves so as to stretch across large spans.
The structure was left exposed after demoulding.
It is a case in which the originality of the material reveals the technological innovation of the age and the design of the architectonic space created. It is an example in which the truth of the material has significant value in the conceptualization of the design. With respect to the materials of the envelope of the building there are different situations. Plastered surfaces are more easily reproducible, since the technology and materials used are still available.
Ceramic coating, in general, is difficult to replace, and exposed concrete undergoes important alteration in the aesthetic aspect.
In general, it is essential to keep the same 'design' in order to maintain the attribute of 'form and design'. The influence of the frames on the significance of the building may vary depending on the area it occupies on the facades. Large areas, such as glass walls or long horizontal windows, in general, exercise more influence on the building composition, which may give them greater value in the significance of the building.
Function 'Function' refers to the type of activity that a building houses office, airport, residence, cinema, etc. It identifies the permanence of the original function. The relationship of form v function is often presented as a challenge for conservation15, but "functions do not generate forms for themselves alone" One should not generalize the concept that "form follows function".
The approach is directed towards the suitability of the buildings. The independent structure, the structural solution used on a large scale, favours greater freedom, space saving and functional flexibility.
It should, be emphasized that some buildings have envelopes that are more flexible than others. The Van Nelle Factory, for example, has a loose envelope and was adapted for a set of offices in the s, while the Zonnestraal Sanitarium, the design of which is tied to a functional specification, was more difficult to be adapted to new functions Use 'Use' is related to the requirements necessary for operation.
It evaluates the conditions of actual use, the ability to make the building suitable for continuing to perform its activities, or even for it to be adapted to new functions with other spatial patterns. The ability of the building to perform its functions adequately contributes to the maintenance and sustainability of the asset. The glass curtain of Lever House, , New York, by Gordon Bunshaft, had the details of its aluminum profiles changed and a colorless film was applied to the glass to achieve a better thermal energy performance, and, externally, the formal characteristics were preserved.
The requirements of use, form and aesthetics guide conservation action towards integrity, but in general a reduction in authenticity occurs The reflection proposed by the contemporary theory of conservation contributes to lesser importance being assigned to the maintenance of the building's original function and a greater one to the capacity of the building to house and perform the activities it is used for However, one must consider that the value of use has its importance.
However, this cannot condition the intervention. Brandi has stated that it should be seen as a means and not as an end Tradition This refers to the cultural tradition of the place where the modern architecture is being designed.
After the early years of the beginning of modern architecture and having been in contact with other cultures or new generations, regional characteristics are introduced. The value of tradition is present in the materials chosen and how they were used.
Villa Mairea, , Noormakku, Finland, by Alvar Aalto, integrates Finnish cultural values which are expressed through materials such as bricks, wood and stone In this case the attributes of 'tradition' and 'material' are related, since there is a cultural meaning associated with the materials. Another example is how modern architecture is adapted to different climatic conditions. There is a reinterpretation of traditional forms of sealing and elements appear such as brise soleil and louvers that filter the sunlight.
Technique In the documents of the World Heritage List, 'technique' is understood as the mode of doing. They refer to the technique used in conducting the structure of buildings, finishes, metal profiles, precast elements, etc. Maintaining the technique in the act of repairing damage takes place by using the same technology as that used in the original building. The attribute of 'technique' contains the value of the technological innovations that enabled modern architecture to create buildings with spatial qualities that were different from those already existing up until then.
It emphasizes technologies that involve the use of reinforced concrete, steel and glass, modern synthetic materials and standardized modular parts such that these facilitate manufacture and construction Principles such as the flexibility of the open floor plan and the use of an independent structure are aspects of the technology that characterize modern architecture.
The value of the technology is identified, in general, by an expert who understands its significance at the time of designing the building. Transferring such significance to the present generation is a challenge. The substitution of components or of construction systems may mean a loss of the records of innovative experiments.
The correction of design 'defects' represents a reduction in the attribute of 'technique', but may represent the maintenance of the attribute of 'use'.
Localization and implementation This refers to the relationship of the building with the natural conditions of the site and its surroundings, whether this is within the limits of its own lot, or whether in the rural or urban context. The documents of modern architecture buildings listed by UNESCO show the permanence of the relationship of the building with the site. In the buildings of monumental scale, the aesthetic power of the work is intended to impress because it is an example of its grandeur and singularity.
The particularity of each work reflects the site, the context and the unique intentions, as well as the themes and the individual vocabulary of the artist The significance of the building is directly related to the natural context in which it is inserted. This is an aspect to be considered for making judgment on the addition of new buildings annexes next to the main building and urban growth.
Language This is the mode of express oneself. These are the theoretical concepts present in the architectonic work.
It is a non- material attribute expressed by means of other attributes such as form and design, technique, interconnection and interpenetration. Documents from the world heritage buildings emphasize these concepts for each example: Interconnection and interpenetration Modern architecture brings a new concept of interconnectedness and interpenetration between indoor spaces and of these with the exterior.
This is a characteristic of earlier decades, s and s, and that later was extended External and internal spaces are seen simultaneously Sketches by Le Corbusier, for example, show the landscape of the surroundings seen from the inside.This study used two categories of cases to identify the attributes of modern architecture: Ieoh Ming Pei Acesso em: 6 fev. In the principles of Bauhaus and the De Stijl movement, the idea is present of the inter-relationship between architecture and the other arts: The texts from which they were extracted were related to each of these in order to identify how they are currently understood.
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